Australia Orthopedic Biomaterial – Market Size, Growth Rates and Competitive Landscape – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Australia Orthopedic Biomaterial – Market Size, Growth Rates and Competitive Landscape Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

This research report provides key market trends, market forecasts and competitive scenario of the orthopedic biomaterial in Australia through 2020.

The product categories covered in this report include:
– Bone Allografts
– Demineralized Bone Material (DBM)
– Bone Graft Substitutes
– Bone Growth Stimulators
– Viscosupplementation

Scope

The report highlights historic and forecasted market size in terms of revenues & unit sales, average selling price, growth rates, and company market shares.
– Highlights and compares key product categories for growth trends and revenue forecast.
– Market size, annualized revenue and unit sales for each product category from 2007 to 2020.
– Cross category comparison – Growth and revenue comparison for product categories, historic and forecast through 2020.
– Market share of companies.
– Average selling price ($) for each product type (2007 to 2020).
– Recent Events and Developments

Why should you buy?
– Build business strategy by identifying the high growth and attractive market categories
– Develop competitive strategy based on competitive landscape
– Design capital investment strategies based on forecasted high potential segments
– Identify potential business partners, acquisition targets and business buyers
– Plan for a new product launch and inventory in advance
– Prepare management and strategic presentations using the market data

Read more and order at Australia Orthopedic Biomaterial – Market Size, Growth Rates and Competitive Landscape

France Bone Graft Substitutes Market Through 2021 – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The France Bone Graft Substitutes Market Through 2021 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

The market intelligence report provides critical market data for bone graft substitutes and its categories synthetic bone graft substitutes and BMP for the France market. The data includes market size in terms of value and volume; average selling price for each product type, growth trends and market shares of company.

The product categories covered in this report include:
– Synthetic Bone Graft Substitutes
– BMP

Scope

The report highlights historic and forecasted market size in terms of revenues & unit sales, average selling price, growth rates, and company market shares.
– Highlights and compares key product categories for growth trends and revenue forecast.
– Market size, annualized revenue and unit sales for each product category from 2007 to 2021.
– Cross category comparison – Growth and revenue comparison for product categories, historic and forecast through 2021.
– Market share of companies.
– Average selling price ($) for each product type (2007 to 2021).
– Recent Events and Developments

Why should you buy?
– Build business strategy by identifying the high growth and attractive market categories
– Develop competitive strategy based on competitive landscape
– Design capital investment strategies based on forecasted high potential segments
– Identify potential business partners, acquisition targets and business buyers
– Plan for a new product launch and inventory in advance
– Prepare management and strategic presentations using the market data

Read more and order at France Bone Graft Substitutes Market Through 2021

Innovations in Biocomposites – High-Tech Materials TOE – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Innovations in Biocomposites – High-Tech Materials TOE Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

Composites comprising a biological element or derived from bio-based sources, commonly known as biocomposites, have gained considerable interest over the past decade across industries. In commercial biocomposites, reinforcement agents such as plant fibers and regenerated cellulose fibers are commonly used, while the matrices of the composite materials include polymers derived from renewable sources, and even virgin or recycled thermoplastics. The automotive industry has the highest adoption potential for biocomposites followed by marine and construction industries.

The High-Tech Materials TechVision Opportunity Engine (TOE) provides intelligence on technologies, products, processes, applications, and strategic insights on various materials across industries. Some material technologies include lightweight materials, bio-based materials, ceramics, smart materials, fibers, nanomaterials, responsive materials, polymers, woven and non woven materials, polymers and plastics and packaging materials.

The Materials and Coatings cluster tracks research and innovation trends and developments across specialty chemicals, plastics, polymers, chemicals, bio-chemicals, metals, coatings, thinfilms, surface treatments, composites, alloys, oil and gas, fuel additives, fibers, and several other related technologies and its impact and application across industries.

Read more and order at Innovations in Biocomposites – High-Tech Materials TOE

Receptors of Cell Adhesion and Cellular Recognition, Vol 3. Biomembranes. A Multi-Volume Treatise – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Receptors of Cell Adhesion and Cellular Recognition, Vol 3. Biomembranes. A Multi-Volume Treatise Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

Volume 3 of Biomembranes covers receptors of cell adhesion and cellular recognition. Proteins in the plasma membrane of cells are heavily involved in processes of cell adhesion, but such proteins were not actually isolated and characterized until the mid-1970s. Since then, application of the methods of molecular biology has led to the recognition of four major classes of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs), the immunoglobulin super family, the cadherins, the integrins, and the selecting. A convenient system in which to study the importance of cell adhesion is in blood platelets where aggregation eventually leads to thrombus formation in a process involving a range of surface glycoproteins. Interaction with the extracellular matrix is exemplified by CD44, the receptor for hyaluronan, and a complex carbohydrate that is a major component of the extracellular matrix surrounding migrating and proliferating cells. Membrane-associated mucins have a variety of effects on cell adhesion. The super family of immunoglobulin related proteins also include the T cell receptors and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which, together with the receptors for immunoglobulins (the Fc receptors), are of fundamental importance in the processes of immunity. Volume 3 of Biomembranes explores the structures and functions of the molecules involved in these important functions of the cell.

Read more and order at Receptors of Cell Adhesion and Cellular Recognition, Vol 3. Biomembranes. A Multi-Volume Treatise

Global and Chinese Pericardial Bioprosthesis Industry – 2017 – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Global and Chinese Pericardial Bioprosthesis Industry – 2017 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

The 'Global and Chinese Pericardial Bioprosthesis Industry – 2017' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Pericardial Bioprosthesis industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Pericardial Bioprosthesis manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.

Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. Then, the report explores the international and Chinese major industry players in detail. In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2012-2017 market shares for each company.

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of the Pericardial Bioprosthesis industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis. The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of the Pericardial Bioprosthesis industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out.

In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of the Pericardial Bioprosthesis Industry before evaluating its feasibility. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 global and Chinese Pericardial Bioprosthesis industry covering all important parameters.

PLEASE NOTE: This report will be completed after order and will take approximately 2-3 business days after the confirmation of payment.

Read more and order at Global and Chinese Pericardial Bioprosthesis Industry – 2017

Shoulder and Elbow Trauma and its Complications, Vol 1. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Shoulder and Elbow Trauma and its Complications, Vol 1. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

Traumatic injuries to the shoulder remain a problem encountered by young and old alike. Trauma surgeons and shoulder and elbow specialists are called upon daily to improve the quality of life of injured individuals by restoring function, decreasing pain and returning individuals to their previous occupations and places in society. Such treatment provides both humanitarian and economic impact. Only recently have techniques and technology allowed surgeons to restore lives to such a degree following these injuries. Still, shoulder and elbow trauma remains a vexing problem for patients and surgeons alike. Many injuries result in lost work and serious debility including lack of function, post-traumatic arthritis and pain. This important textbook provides a systematic and comprehensive guide to the different types of shoulder trauma and the management of its associated complications.

In Part One, the focus is on the most common types of shoulder trauma, with chapters covering anterior instability, traumatic rotator cuff tears, fractures, joint injuries and the floating shoulder and includes sections on the most common complications befalling each injury. Part II then reviews the management of the most common complications. Chapters include detailed analyses of persistent anterior shoulder instability, several forms of nonunion and malunion, failed acromioclavicular joint reconstruction, post-traumatic arthropathy and traumatic osteonecrosis, and failed arthroplasty for fracture.

  • Reviews common types of shoulder trauma
  • Addresses the common complications associated with each injury
  • Provides a detailed guide to the management of common complications

Read more and order at Shoulder and Elbow Trauma and its Complications, Vol 1. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials

Global and Chinese Artificial Organs Industry – 2017 – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Global and Chinese Artificial Organs Industry – 2017 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

The 'Global and Chinese Artificial Organs Industry – 2017' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Artificial Organs industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Artificial Organs manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.

Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. Then, the report explores the international and Chinese major industry players in detail. In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2012-2017 market shares for each company.

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of the Artificial Organs industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis. The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of the Artificial Organs industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out.

In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of the Artificial Organs Industry before evaluating its feasibility. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 global and Chinese Artificial Organs industry covering all important parameters.

PLEASE NOTE: This report will be completed after order and will take approximately 2-3 business days after the confirmation of payment.

Read more and order at Global and Chinese Artificial Organs Industry – 2017

Host Response to Biomaterials – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The Host Response to Biomaterials Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response.

The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions.

Fields covered include, but are not limited to, orthopaedic surgery, dentistry, general surgery, neurosurgery, urology, and regenerative medicine.

– Explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications- Contains a range of extensive coverage, including, but not limited to, orthopedic, surgery, dental, general surgery, neurosurgery, lower urinary tract, and regenerative medicine- Includes regulations regarding combination devices

Read more and order at Host Response to Biomaterials

European Dental Bone Graft Substitutes and Other Biomaterials Market 2013 – MedSuite – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The European Dental Bone Graft Substitutes and Other Biomaterials Market 2013 – MedSuite Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

In 2012, the European market for dental bone graft substitutes, dental membranes and tissue engineering products exceeded €200 million.
The European markets for dental bone graft substitutes, dental membranes, and tissue engineering products include Austria, Benelux, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Israel, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Greece and the Czech Republic. Compared to the dental implant market, many segments of this market were more affected by low rates of consumer spending on elective procedures.
Scope: This report pertains to a forecast period of 10 years (2009 – 2019) for Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Spain, Benelux, Scandinavia, Austria, Switzerland, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Greece, Czech Rebublic.
Report Contents:
Competitor Analysis
Identified Strategic Opportunities
Market Overview by Segment & Country
Trend Analysis by Segment & Country
Market Drivers & Limiters
Mergers & Acquisitions
Customer Feedback and Market Monitoring
Main Segments Included:
Allograft Market
Xenograft Market
Synthetic Market
Dental Membrane Market
Companies Included:
Sweden & Martina
Riemser
Artoss
Geistlich
Botiss
BIOMET 3i
Straumann
Zimmer
Non-Profit Tissue Banks
Dentegris
Tecnoss Dental
Biomatlante
ACE Surgical
Bioteck
Biocomposites
MIS Implant
BiohorizonsOsteotech
NovaBone
Degradable Solutions
3M ESPE
Bredent
CAMLOG
DENTSPLY Friadent
Nobel Biocare
Dentaurum Implants
Keystone Dental
J Morita
Reasons To Buy:
This report analyzes and evaluates the current state of the market including existing and potential markets, product average selling prices, and unit volumes. The report also highlights the opportunities and potential hazards involved, and presents strategies for successfully navigating the market landscape. Furthermore, it seeks to identify the trends and technologies that will affect the future of each market segment and prepares an unbiased critical assessment of such market drivers and limiters based on our “ground up” approach, which includes primary and secondary research methods.

Read more and order at European Dental Bone Graft Substitutes and Other Biomaterials Market 2013 – MedSuite

The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Bone Graft Substitutes – Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Industries

The The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Bone Graft Substitutes Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Healthcare Markets.

This study covers the world outlook for bone graft substitutes across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe. These comparative benchmarks allow the reader to quickly gauge a country vis-à-vis others. Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each country and across countries, latent demand estimates are created. This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent demand, nor specific details at the product level. The study also does not consider short-term cyclicalities that might affect realized sales. The study, therefore, is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view, irrespective of the players or products involved. This study does not report actual sales data (which are simply unavailable, in a comparable or consistent manner in virtually all of the countries of the world). This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for bone graft substitutes. It also shows how the P.I.E. is divided across the world's regional and national markets. For each country, I also show my estimates of how the P.I.E. grows over time (positive or negative growth). In order to make these estimates, a multi-stage methodology was employed that is often taught in courses on international strategic planning at graduate schools of business.

1.3 The Methodology

In order to estimate the latent demand for bone graft substitutes on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. Before applying the approach, one needs a basic theory from which such estimates are created. In this case, I heavily rely on the use of certain basic economic assumptions. In particular, there is an assumption governing the shape and type of aggregate latent demand functions. Latent demand functions relate the income of a country, city, state, household, or individual to realized consumption. Latent demand (often realized as consumption when an industry is efficient), at any level of the value chain, takes place if an equilibrium is realized. For firms to serve a market, they must perceive a latent demand and be able to serve that demand at a minimal return. The single most important variable determining consumption, assuming latent demand exists, is income (or other financial resources at higher levels of the value chain). Other factors that can pivot or shape demand curves include external or exogenous shocks (i.e., business cycles), and or changes in utility for the product in question.

Ignoring, for the moment, exogenous shocks and variations in utility across countries, the aggregate relation between income and consumption has been a central theme in economics. The figure below concisely summarizes one aspect of problem. In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average propensity to consume is the level of consumption divided by the level of income, or the slope of the line from the origin to the consumption function. He estimated this relationship empirically and found it to be true in the short-run (mostly based on cross-sectional data). The higher the income, the lower the average propensity to consume. This type of consumption function is shown as "B" in the figure below (note the rather flat slope of the curve). In the 1940s, another macroeconomist, Simon Kuznets, estimated long-run consumption functions which indicated that the marginal propensity to consume was rather constant (using time series data across countries). This type of consumption function is show as "B" in the figure below (note the higher slope and zero-zero intercept).

The average propensity to consume is constant. For a general overview of this subject area, see Principles of Macroeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw, South-Western College Publishing; ISBN: 0030340594; 2nd edition (February 2002).

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for bone graft substitutes across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for bone graft substitutes. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for bone graft substitutes. Since this methodology applies to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just bone graft substitutes.

1.3.1 Step 1. Product Definition And Data Collection

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.
Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for bone graft substitutes across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for bone graft substitutes. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for bone graft substitutes. Since this methodology applies to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just bone graft substitutes.

1.3.1 Step 1. Product Definition And Data Collection

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.Latent demand is therefore estimated using data collected for relatively efficient markets from independent data sources (e.g. Euromonitor, Mintel, Thomson Financial Services, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, the World Resources Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various agencies from the United Nations, industry trade associations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank). Depending on original data sources used, the definition of "bone graft substitutes" is established. In the case of this report, the data were reported at the aggregate level, with no further breakdown or definition. In other words, any potential products that might be incorporated within bone graft substitutes fall under this category. Public sources rarely report data at the disaggregated level in order to protect private information from individual firms that might dominate a specific product-market. These sources will therefore aggregate across components of a category and report only the aggregate to the public. While private data are certainly available, this report only relies on public data at the aggregate level without reliance on the summation of various category components. In other words, this report does not aggregate a number of components to arrive at the "whole". Rather, it starts with the "whole", and estimates the whole for all countries and the world at large (without needing to know the specific parts that went into the whole in the first place).Given this caveat, in this report we define the sales of bone graft substitutes as including all commonly understood products falling within this broad category, such as uses in arthroplasty, trauma, spinal fusion, joint reconstruction, and foot and hand procedures, dental bone grafts, and synthetic bone grafts, irrespective of product packaging, formulation, size, or form. Companies participating in this industry include NuVasive, Baxter, Medtronic, Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Orthofix International, and Wright Medical Group. In addition to the sources indicated below, additional information available to the public via news and/or press releases published by players in the industry was considered in defining and calibrating this category. All figures are in a common currency (U.S. dollars, millions) and are not adjusted for inflation (i.e., they are current values). Exchange rates used to convert to U.S. dollars are averages for the year in question. Future exchange rates are assumed to be constant in the future at the current level (the average of the year of this publication’s release in 2017).This report was prepared from a variety of sources including excerpts from documents and official reports or databases published by the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. State Department, various national agencies, the International Monetary Fund, the Central Intelligence Agency, various agencies from the United Nations (e.g. ILO, ITU, UNDP, etc.), and non-governmental sources and various public sources cited in the trade press.

1.3.2 Step 2. Filtering And Smoothing

Based on the aggregate view of bone graft substitutes as defined above, data were then collected for as many similar countries as possible for that same definition, at the same level of the value chain. This generates a convenience sample of countries from which comparable figures are available. If the series in question do not reflect the same accounting period, then adjustments are made. In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting scheme (longer weighting schemes do not substantially change the results). If data are available for a country, but these reflect short-run aberrations due to exogenous shocks (such as would be the case of beef sales in a country stricken with foot and mouth disease), these observations were dropped or "filtered" from the analysis.

1.3.3 Step 3. Filling In Missing Values

In some cases, data are available for countries on a sporadic basis. In other cases, data from a country may be available for only one year. From a Bayesian perspective, these observations should be given the greatest weight in estimating missing years. Assuming that other factors are held constant, the missing years are extrapolated using changes and growth in aggregate national income. Based on the overriding philosophy of a long-run consumption function (defined earlier), countries which have missing data for any given year are estimated based on historical dynamics of aggregate income for that country.

1.3.4 Step 4. Varying Parameter, Non-Linear Estimation

Given the data available from the first three steps, the latent demand in additional countries is estimated using a "varying-parameter cross-sectionally pooled time series model".

The interested reader can find longer discussions of this type of modeling in Studies in Global Econometrics (Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics V. 30), by Henri Theil, et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 0792336607; (June 1996), and in Principles of Econometrics, by Henri Theil John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471858455; (December 1971), and in Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts by Robert S. Pindyck, Daniel L. Rubinfeld McGraw Hill Text; ISBN: 0070500983; 3rd edition (December 1991). Simply stated, the effect of income on latent demand is assumed to be constant across countries unless there is empirical evidence to suggest that this effect varies (i.e., the slope of the income effect is not necessarily the same for all countries). This assumption applies across countries along the aggregate consumption function, but also over time (i.e., not all countries are perceived to have the same income growth prospects over time and this effect can vary from country to country as well). Another way of looking at this is to say that latent demand for bone graft substitutes is more likely to be similar across countries that have similar characteristics in terms of economic development (i.e., African countries will have similar latent demand structures controlling for the income variation across the pool of African countries). This approach is useful across countries for which some notion of non-linearity exists in the aggregate cross-country consumption function. For some categories, however, the reader must realize that the numbers will reflect a country’s contribution to global latent demand and may never be realized in the form of local sales. For certain country-category combinations this will result in what at first glance will be odd results. For example, the latent demand for the category "space vehicles" will exist for Togo even though they have no space program. The assumption is that if the economies in these countries did not exist, the world aggregate for these categories would be lower. The share attributed to these countries is based on a proportion of their income (however small) being used to consume the category in question (i.e., perhaps via resellers).

1.3.5 Step 5. Fixed-Parameter Linear Estimation

Nonlinearities are assumed in cases where filtered data exist along the aggregate consumption function. Because the world consists of more than 200 countries, there will always be those countries, especially toward the bottom of the consumption function, where non-linear estimation is simply not possible. For these countries, equilibrium latent demand is assumed to be perfectly parametric and not a function of wealth (i.e., a country’s stock of income), but a function of current income (a country’s flow of income). In the long run, if a country has no current income, the latent demand for bone graft substitutes is assumed to approach zero. The assumption is that wealth stocks fall rapidly to zero if flow income falls to zero (i.e., countries which earn low levels of income will not use their savings, in the long run, to demand bone graft substitutes). In a graphical sense, for low-income countries, latent demand approaches zero in a parametric linear fashion with a zero-zero intercept. In this stage of the estimation procedure, low-income countries are assumed to have a latent demand proportional to their income, based on the country closest to it on the aggregate consumption function.

1.3.6 Step 6. Aggregation And Benchmarking

Based on the models described in Chapter 1, latent demand figures are estimated for all countries of the world, including for the smallest economies. These are then aggregated to get world totals and regional totals. To make the numbers more meaningful, regional and global demand averages are presented. Figures are rounded, so minor inconsistencies may exist across tables.

1.3.7 Step 7. Latent Demand Density: Allocating Across Cities

With the advent of a "borderless world", cities become a more important criteria in prioritizing markets, as opposed to regions, continents, or countries. This report also covers the world’s top 2,000 cities. The purpose is to understand the density of demand within a country and the extent to which a city might be used as a point of distribution within its region. From an economic perspective, however, a city does not represent a population within rigid geographical boundaries. To an economist or strategic planner, a city represents an area of dominant influence over markets in adjacent areas. This influence varies from one industry to another, but also from one period of time to another.

Similar to country-level data, the reader needs to realize that latent demand allocated to a city may or may not represent real sales. For many items, latent demand is clearly observable in sales, as in the case for food or housing items. Consider, again, the category "satellite launch vehicles." Clearly, there are no launch pads in most cities of the world. However, the core benefit of the vehicles (e.g. telecommunications, etc.) is "consumed" by residents or industries within the world's cities. Without certain cities, in other words, the world market for satellite launch vehicles would be lower for the world in general. One needs to allocate, therefore, a portion of the worldwide economic demand for launch vehicles to regions, countries, and cities. This report takes the broader definition and considers, therefore, a city as a part of the global market. I allocate latent demand across areas of dominant influence based on the relative economic importance of cities within its home country, within its region, and across the world total. Not all cities are estimated within each country as demand may be allocated to adjacent areas of influence. Since some cities have higher economic wealth than others within the same country, a city’s population is not generally used to allocate latent demand. Rather, the level of economic activity of the city is used vis-à-vis others.

Read more and order at The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Bone Graft Substitutes