Physicians – Healthcare, Healthcare Services Industries

The Physicians Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services Markets.

Brief Excerpt from Industry Overview Chapter

Offices in this industry provide general or specialized medical care. No major companies dominate.

Competitive Landscape

Demand for physician services is driven by population growth and demographics. The profitability of individual practices depends on the reputation and expertise of the physician and staff. Large practices have advantages in leveraging administrative processes and expensive diagnostic equipment. Small practices compete effectively by providing specialized skills and good customer service. Physicians generally have several direct competitors in the immediate geographic area.

Products, Operations & Technology

Operations of physician offices revolve around patient care, appointment scheduling, records management, and insurance processing. Typically, a patient makes an appointment several days or weeks before being seen, a medical record file is retrieved, the patient sees the doctor for less than 20 minutes, the doctor orders tests or prescribes treatment, the doctor's consultation and any test results or treatments are entered into the medical records, and the cost of the visit is billed to an insurance plan.

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Global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market 2017-2021 – Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Industries

The Global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market 2017-2021 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Markets.

About Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits

HIV rapid test kits help in determining the presence of antibodies for HIV in body fluids. The test kits include simple, single-use, disposable devices that can provide results within limited time. These devices are designed for using unprocessed specimens such as saliva and blood to detect antibodies. Based on the test, the HIV rapid test kits are of two types, namely, rapid immunoassay test and rapid molecular diagnostic test.

The analysts forecast the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid test kits market to grow at a CAGR of 7.23% during the period 2017-2021.

Covered in this report

The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid test kits market for 2017-2021. The report presents a detailed picture of the market by way of study, synthesis, and summation of data from multiple sources.

The market is divided into the following segments based on geography:

  • Americas
  • APAC
  • EMEA

The report, Global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

Key vendors

  • F. Hoffmann-La Roche
  • Alere

Other prominent vendors

  • Abbott
  • AccuBioTech
  • Access Bio
  • Ameritek
  • ALL.DIAG
  • Atomo Diagnostics
  • Autobio Diagnostics
  • Beckman Coulter
  • BD Biosciences
  • Bionor
  • Bio Focus
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories
  • bioMérieux
  • Bundi International Diagnostics
  • Calypte Biomedical
  • CS Innovation
  • Cortez Diagnostics
  • EY Laboratories
  • Hangzhou Biotest Biotech
  • Hema Diagnostics System
  • Hologic
  • JAL Innovation
  • LifeSign
  • Maccura Biotechnology
  • MedMira
  • Medinostics
  • MPI Diagnostics
  • Nectar Lifesciences
  • NTBIO Diagnostics
  • OraSure Technologies
  • PointCare
  • Premier Medical
  • Qiagen
  • Savyon Diagnostics
  • Shanghai Kehua Bioengineering
  • Span Diagnostics
  • Sysmex
  • Trinity Biotech
  • Turklab Tibbi Malzemeler San. Tic.
  • ViennaLab Diagnostics
  • Voxtur Bio
  • Wama Diagnostica

Market drivers

  • Some favorable reimbursements in developed countries
  • For a full, detailed list, view the full report

Market challenges

  • High accuracy of ELISA over HIV rapid test kits
  • For a full, detailed list, view the full report

Market trends

  • Growing preference for self-testing
  • For a full, detailed list, view the full report

Key questions answered in this report:

  • What will the market size be in 2021 and what will the growth rate be?
  • What are the key market trends?
  • What is driving this market?
  • What are the challenges to market growth?
  • Who are the key vendors in this market space?

You can request one free hour of the analyst’s time when you purchase this market report. Details are provided within the report.

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Romania: Electro Diagnostic Equipment (Except Electrocardiographs) Market – Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Industries

The Romania: Electro Diagnostic Equipment (Except Electrocardiographs) Market Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Markets.

This report presents a comprehensive overview of the electro diagnostic equipment market in Romania and a forecast for its development in the next five years. It provides a detailed analysis of the market, its dynamics, structure, characteristics, main players, growth and demand drivers, etc.

The purpose of the report is to describe the state of the electro diagnostic equipment market in Romania, to present actual and retrospective information about the volumes, dynamics, structure and characteristics of production, imports, exports and consumption and to build a forecast for the market in the medium term. In addition, the report presents an elaborate analysis of the main market participants, the price fluctuations, growth and demand drivers of the market and all other factors, influencing its development.

This research report has been prepared using the publisher's unique methodology, including a blend of qualitative and quantitative data. The information comes from official sources and insights from market experts (representatives of the main market participants), gathered by semi-structured interviews.

The report on the electro diagnostic equipment market in Romania includes:

  • Analysis and forecast for the economy of Romania;
  • Analysis and forecast for development of the market volume (market size), value and dynamics;
  • Market structure (by origin, by types of products, etc.);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of domestic production (past, current and future);
  • Analysis of price levels (wholesale, retail, distributors, etc.) and their dynamics (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of imports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of exports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of consumption (past, current and future);
  • Characteristics of the main market participants (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Government structures, etc.) and the competitive landscape;
  • Value chain analysis;
  • Analysis of the factors, influencing the development of the market (market growth drivers, restraints, recent state programs, etc.);
  • Analysis and forecast of the trends and levels of supply and demand on the market;
  • Forecast for development of the market in the medium term (including three possible scenarios for development).

This report will allow you to:

  • Quickly and cost-effectively gain competitive intelligence about the market;
  • Track market data, including size, value, segmentation, forecasts, dynamics and structure – past, present and future;
  • Track and identify key market trends, opportunities and threats and key drivers behind recent market changes;
  • Strategically assess market growth potential, demand drivers and restraints on the market;
  • Evaluate the key macroeconomic indicators to get insight into the general trends within the economy;
  • See how the market performed in the past (over the last 5 years) and how it will perform in the future (in the next 5 years);
  • Get acquainted with the leading companies on the market (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Governmental structures, etc.);
  • Evaluate how diversified the market is in terms of competitive intensity, fragmentation and environment and understand competitive threats;
  • Empower your marketing, branding, strategy and market development, consumption and supply functions with useful market insights;
  • Build your investment strategy by assessing market attractiveness or company attractiveness;
  • Build your own market entry or market expansion strategy or evaluate your current strategy;
  • Add weight to pitches and presentations by using official and accurate data and calculations.

If you are interested in the electro diagnostic equipment market in Romania, this research report will provide you with invaluable analysis of the market, its recent and future development. In addition, the report will save you time and money while presenting you all the necessary information, empowering you to make informed decisions and move your business forward.

By purchasing this report, you get 15% free customization – its structure and contents can be amended based on your specific requirements and goals. The report will be updated as of the current month of purchase.

This report is 75% ready and is in completion stage. The final version of the research report will be presented up to 5 working days after your order. If you purchase the Enterprise License, you will get an Excel sheet with all the quantitative information in up to 2 working days after your purchase.

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McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. Edition No. 10 – Dental, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Industries

The McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. Edition No. 10 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Dental, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Markets.

You can count on McDonald: the go-to source for expert, complete coverage of oral care for infants, children, and teenagers for over half a century. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent, 10th Edition discusses pediatric examination, development, morphology, eruption of the teeth, and dental caries in depth – and emphasizes prevention and the treatment of the medically compromised patient. Boasting a new design and handy Evolve site, this new edition by Jeffrey A. Dean equips you with the latest diagnostic and treatment recommendations in the fast-growing field of pediatric dentistry.

Read more and order at McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. Edition No. 10

Fluorine-18 (CAS 13981-56-1) Market Research Report 2017 – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacology, Therapeutic Area Industries

The Fluorine-18 (CAS 13981-56-1) Market Research Report 2017 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacology, Therapeutic Area Markets.

This Global Report 2017 is a result of industry experts’ diligent work on Researching the world market of Fluorine-18. The report helps to build up a clear view of the market (trends and prospects), identify major players in the industry, and estimate main downstream sectors.

The Fluorine-18 global market report 2017 key points:

– Fluorine-18 description, its application areas and related patterns
– Fluorine-18 market situation
– Fluorine-18 manufacturers and distributors
– Fluorine-18 prices (by region and provided by market players)
– Fluorine-18 end-uses breakdown
– Fluorine-18 downstream industries trends

The first chapter introduces the product by providing review of the most of its characteristics (composition, structure, hazards, storage, toxicological & ecological information, etc.).
The second chapter focuses on Fluorine-18 end-uses, the third one gives summary on a number of patents.
The fourth chapter deals with Fluorine-18 market trends review, distinguish Fluorine-18 manufacturers and suppliers.
Chapter 5 summarizes Fluorine-18 prices data.
The last chapter analyses Fluorine-18 downstream markets.

Please Note: The report is to be delivered 5 days after an order is placed.

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All Other Outpatient Care Centers – The 2017 U.S. Market Research Report (Covers 2008-2021) – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management, Other Healthcare Facilities Industries

The All Other Outpatient Care Centers – The 2017 U.S. Market Research Report (Covers 2008-2021) Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management, Other Healthcare Facilities Markets.

The 2017 Market Research Report on All Other Outpatient Care Centers is an in-depth evaluation of the industry and will provide you with the key insights, trends and benchmarks you need to create a broad and comprehensive diagnostic and understanding of the industry and your company.

This report is utilized for a range of strategic purposes, including benchmarking, due diligence, cost cutting, planning, evaluating opportunities, forecasting, streamlining, and gap analysis. The report covers over 100 insightful data sets, such as historical market size and forecasted growth, operating expense details, product line breakdown, financial ratios, benchmarks, wages, profitability, organizational analysis, employee productivity, state statistics, price inflation, consolidation analysis, firm dynamics, pay ranges for different roles, firm size data, employment, and much more.

The core data is generated from the most comprehensive set of surveys filled out by companies in the industry. Our analysts generate the commentary and forecasts based on industry dynamics and the macroeconomic environment.

Just look at the table of contents or download a free sample report to see the broad and in-depth insights, which leaders have come to depend on for their research, strategic and benchmarking needs.

This industry comprises establishments with medical staff primarily engaged in providing general or specialized outpatient care (except family planning centers, outpatient mental health and substance abuse centers, HMO medical centers, kidney dialysis centers, and freestanding ambulatory surgical and emergency centers). Centers or clinics of health practitioners with different degrees from more than one industry practicing within the same establishment (i.e., Doctor of medicine and Doctor of dental medicine) are included in this industry.

Below are select highlights from the 2017 Market Research Report on All Other Outpatient Care Centers:

INDUSTRY SIZE & ATTRACTIVENESS
In 2016, industry sales were $45.5 billion
Buy now for historical and forecasted market size

INDUSTRY GROWTH
Over the past 3 years, the industry has grown at an annual rate of 8.1%
Buy now for historical, annual and forecasted growth rates

COMPANY GROWTH
There are 5,805 companies in the industry
Learn more about the historical and forecasted industry composition

SALES PER COMPANY
In 2016, the average sales per company was $7.8 million
Buy now for historical and forecasted sales per company

INFLATION & PRICING
2017 forecasted inflation is 1.3%
Buy now for historical industry inflation and the 5-year forecast

COMPANY SIZE BENCHMARKS
From 2009 to 2015, the number of companies with 20-99 employees grew 16.2%
Discover many more insights by size of company

PROFITABILITY
For unprofitable companies, the average net loss is -8.3%
Buy now to learn more about profitability dynamics

FINANCIAL RATIO BENCHMARKS
Companies average a Fixed Asset Turnover ratio of 3.8
Benchmark nine other important financial ratios

RIGHTSIZING ANALYSIS
Employee productivity is $137,955
Buy now for historical and forecasted employee productivity

EXPENSE BENCHMARKING
4.1% of expenses are spent on health insurance
Benchmark against 24 other expense categories

OPERATING EXPENSES
In 2016, industry operating expenses grew 8.1%
Buy now for historical and forecasted OPEX

PAYROLL
In 2016, payroll per employee was $51,445
Get the full picture with historicals and the 2017 and 5-year forecasts

PAYROLL BY STATE
California averages $58,098 in payroll per employee
Buy now for payroll stats on other states

JOB CATEGORIZATION BENCHMARKS
4.4% of employees in the industry are in management positions
Benchmark against 13 other job categories

JOB CATEGORIZATION PAY RANGES
The average industry hourly pay for office and administrative jobs is $17.2
Buy now for the bottom 10%, 25%, average, top 75% and 90% pay ranges in 14 job categories

The above highlights represent a small fraction of what you will find in this report.

Purchase the 2017 Market Research Report on All Other Outpatient Care Centers now to unlock the insight from one of the most trusted research firms.

Read more and order at All Other Outpatient Care Centers – The 2017 U.S. Market Research Report (Covers 2008-2021)

The Challenge of Sexuality in Health Care – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nursing Industries

The The Challenge of Sexuality in Health Care Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nursing Markets.

The Challenge of Sexuality in Health Care is for all nurses and health care professionals who have ever experienced feelings of inadequacy or embarrassment in addressing health care issues related to sexuality. Sexuality remains one of the most sensitive, challenging and marginalised elements in the work of health care practitioners.
Adopting a broad definition of sexuality, the text provides a greater understanding of sexuality from its societal contexts to the microcosm of the nurse/patient relationship. Experts within their individual fields confront the challenging realities for both nursing and wider society, as well as the experiences of service users and their partners. Readers are invited to challenge conventions in practice, and to implement individual and organisational change which will enhance the ways in which sexuality is addressed.
Key Features:

Offers diverse perspectives on sexuality within its historical and cultural context

Considers the meaning of sexuality to people in health, illness and disability

Examines the influences upon the integration of sexuality within health care practice

Includes practical examples of care enhancement

Provides recommendations for education and practice development Sexuality and sexual health are not only central elements of holistic care, but also contribute to the effective management of a whole range of sensitive healthcare challenges. The Challenge of Sexuality in Health Care is of direct relevance to undergraduate nursing students, qualified nurses undertaking post–registration courses and nurses in all areas of practice. It will also be a valuable resource for social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, doctors and other health care professionals.

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Czech Republic: Bifocal and Progressive Lenses Market – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Optical Industries

The Czech Republic: Bifocal and Progressive Lenses Market Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Optical Markets.

This report presents a comprehensive overview of the bifocal and progressive lenses market in the Czech Republic and a forecast for its development in the next five years. It provides a detailed analysis of the market, its dynamics, structure, characteristics, main players, growth and demand drivers, etc.

The purpose of the report is to describe the state of the bifocal and progressive lenses market in the Czech Republic, to present actual and retrospective information about the volumes, dynamics, structure and characteristics of production, imports, exports and consumption and to build a forecast for the market in the medium term. In addition, the report presents an elaborate analysis of the main market participants, the price fluctuations, growth and demand drivers of the market and all other factors, influencing its development.

This research report has been prepared using the publisher's unique methodology, including a blend of qualitative and quantitative data. The information comes from official sources and insights from market experts (representatives of the main market participants), gathered by semi-structured interviews.

The report on the bifocal and progressive lenses market in the Czech Republic includes:

  • Analysis and forecast for the economy of the Czech Republic;
  • Analysis and forecast for development of the market volume (market size), value and dynamics;
  • Market structure (by origin, by types of products, etc.);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of domestic production (past, current and future);
  • Analysis of price levels (wholesale, retail, distributors, etc.) and their dynamics (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of imports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of exports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of consumption (past, current and future);
  • Characteristics of the main market participants (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Government structures, etc.) and the competitive landscape;
  • Value chain analysis;
  • Analysis of the factors, influencing the development of the market (market growth drivers, restraints, recent state programs, etc.);
  • Analysis and forecast of the trends and levels of supply and demand on the market;
  • Forecast for development of the market in the medium term (including three possible scenarios for development).

This report will allow you to:

  • Quickly and cost-effectively gain competitive intelligence about the market;
  • Track market data, including size, value, segmentation, forecasts, dynamics and structure – past, present and future;
  • Track and identify key market trends, opportunities and threats and key drivers behind recent market changes;
  • Strategically assess market growth potential, demand drivers and restraints on the market;
  • Evaluate the key macroeconomic indicators to get insight into the general trends within the economy;
  • See how the market performed in the past (over the last 5 years) and how it will perform in the future (in the next 5 years);
  • Get acquainted with the leading companies on the market (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Governmental structures, etc.);
  • Evaluate how diversified the market is in terms of competitive intensity, fragmentation and environment and understand competitive threats;
  • Empower your marketing, branding, strategy and market development, consumption and supply functions with useful market insights;
  • Build your investment strategy by assessing market attractiveness or company attractiveness;
  • Build your own market entry or market expansion strategy or evaluate your current strategy;
  • Add weight to pitches and presentations by using official and accurate data and calculations.

If you are interested in the bifocal and progressive lenses market in the Czech Republic, this research report will provide you with invaluable analysis of the market, its recent and future development. In addition, the report will save you time and money while presenting you all the necessary information, empowering you to make informed decisions and move your business forward.

By purchasing this report, you get 15% free customization – its structure and contents can be amended based on your specific requirements and goals. The report will be updated as of the current month of purchase.

This report is 75% ready and is in completion stage. The final version of the research report will be presented up to 5 working days after your order. If you purchase the Enterprise License, you will get an Excel sheet with all the quantitative information in up to 2 working days after your purchase.

Read more and order at Czech Republic: Bifocal and Progressive Lenses Market

The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Systems – E-Healthcare, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management Industries

The The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Systems Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from E-Healthcare, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management Markets.

This study covers the world outlook for electronic medical record (EMR) systems across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe. These comparative benchmarks allow the reader to quickly gauge a country vis-à-vis others. Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each country and across countries, latent demand estimates are created. This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent demand, nor specific details at the product level. The study also does not consider short-term cyclicalities that might affect realized sales. The study, therefore, is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view, irrespective of the players or products involved. This study does not report actual sales data (which are simply unavailable, in a comparable or consistent manner in virtually all of the countries of the world). This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for electronic medical record (EMR) systems. It also shows how the P.I.E. is divided across the world's regional and national markets. For each country, I also show my estimates of how the P.I.E. grows over time (positive or negative growth). In order to make these estimates, a multi-stage methodology was employed that is often taught in courses on international strategic planning at graduate schools of business.

1.3 The Methodology

In order to estimate the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. Before applying the approach, one needs a basic theory from which such estimates are created. In this case, I heavily rely on the use of certain basic economic assumptions. In particular, there is an assumption governing the shape and type of aggregate latent demand functions. Latent demand functions relate the income of a country, city, state, household, or individual to realized consumption. Latent demand (often realized as consumption when an industry is efficient), at any level of the value chain, takes place if an equilibrium is realized. For firms to serve a market, they must perceive a latent demand and be able to serve that demand at a minimal return. The single most important variable determining consumption, assuming latent demand exists, is income (or other financial resources at higher levels of the value chain). Other factors that can pivot or shape demand curves include external or exogenous shocks (i.e., business cycles), and or changes in utility for the product in question.

Ignoring, for the moment, exogenous shocks and variations in utility across countries, the aggregate relation between income and consumption has been a central theme in economics. The figure below concisely summarizes one aspect of problem. In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average propensity to consume is the level of consumption divided by the level of income, or the slope of the line from the origin to the consumption function. He estimated this relationship empirically and found it to be true in the short-run (mostly based on cross-sectional data). The higher the income, the lower the average propensity to consume. This type of consumption function is shown as "B" in the figure below (note the rather flat slope of the curve). In the 1940s, another macroeconomist, Simon Kuznets, estimated long-run consumption functions which indicated that the marginal propensity to consume was rather constant (using time series data across countries). This type of consumption function is show as "B" in the figure below (note the higher slope and zero-zero intercept).

The average propensity to consume is constant. For a general overview of this subject area, see Principles of Macroeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw, South-Western College Publishing; ISBN: 0030340594; 2nd edition (February 2002).

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Since this methodology has been applied to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just electronic medical record (EMR) systems.

1.3.1 Step 1. Product Definition And Data Collection

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.
Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Since this methodology has been applied to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just electronic medical record (EMR) systems.

1.3.2 Step 2. Filtering

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.Latent demand is therefore estimated using data collected for relatively efficient markets from independent data sources (e.g. Euromonitor, Mintel, Thomson Financial Services, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, the World Resources Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various agencies from the United Nations, industry trade associations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank). Depending on original data sources used, the definition of "electronic medical record (EMR) systems" is established. In the case of this report, the data were reported at the aggregate level, with no further breakdown or definition. In other words, any potential products and/or services that might be incorporated within electronic medical record (EMR) systems fall under this category. Public sources rarely report data at the disaggregated level in order to protect private information from individual firms that might dominate a specific product-market. These sources will therefore aggregate across components of a category and report only the aggregate to the public. While private data are certainly available, this report only relies on public data at the aggregate level without reliance on the summation of various category components. In other words, this report does not aggregate a number of components to arrive at the "whole". Rather, it starts with the "whole", and estimates the whole for all countries and the world at large (without needing to know the specific parts that went into the whole in the first place).Given this caveat, in this report we define the sales of electronic medical record (EMR) systems as including all commonly understood products and/or services falling within this broad category, such as hospital and ambulatory record systems, record systems used for hospitals, general physician and specialised clinics, and ambulatory surgical centers, record software and services, and client server, cloud-based, and hybrid setups, irrespective of product packaging, formulation, size, or form. Companies participating in this industry include Cerner Corp, McKesson Corporation, Medical Information Technology, Epic Systems Corporation, Greenway Health, and NextGen Healthcare Information Systems. In addition to the sources indicated below, additional information available to the public via news and/or press releases published by players in the industry was considered in defining and calibrating this category. All figures are in a common currency (U.S. dollars, millions) and are not adjusted for inflation (i.e., they are current values). Exchange rates used to convert to U.S. dollars are averages for the year in question. Future exchange rates are assumed to be constant in the future at the current level (the average of the year of this publication’s release in 2017).This report was prepared from a variety of sources including excerpts from documents and official reports or databases published by the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. State Department, various national agencies, the International Monetary Fund, the Central Intelligence Agency, various agencies from the United Nations (e.g. ILO, ITU, UNDP, etc.), and non-governmental sources.

1.3.3 Step 3. Smoothing

Based on the aggregate view of electronic medical record (EMR) systems as defined above, data were then collected for as many similar countries as possible for that same definition, at the same level of the value chain. This generates a convenience sample of countries from which comparable figures are available. If the series in question do not reflect the same accounting period, then adjustments are made. In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting scheme (longer weighting schemes do not substantially change the results). If data are available for a country, but these reflect short-run aberrations due to exogenous shocks (such as would be the case of beef sales in a country stricken with foot and mouth disease), these observations were dropped or "filtered" from the analysis.

In some cases, data are available for countries on a sporadic basis. In other cases, data from a country may be available for only one year. From a Bayesian perspective, these observations should be given the greatest weight in estimating missing years. Assuming that other factors are held constant, the missing years are extrapolated using changes and growth in aggregate national income. Based on the overriding philosophy of a long-run consumption function (defined earlier), countries which have missing data for any given year are estimated based on historical dynamics of aggregate income for that country.

1.3.4 Step 4. Varying Parameter, Non-Linear Estimation

Given the data available from the first three steps, the latent demand in additional countries is estimated using a "varying-parameter cross-sectionally pooled time series model".

The interested reader can find longer discussions of this type of modeling in Studies in Global Econometrics (Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics V. 30), by Henri Theil, et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 0792336607; (June 1996), and in Principles of Econometrics, by Henri Theil John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471858455; (December 1971), and in Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts by Robert S. Pindyck, Daniel L. Rubinfeld McGraw Hill Text; ISBN: 0070500983; 3rd edition (December 1991). Simply stated, the effect of income on latent demand is assumed to be constant across countries unless there is empirical evidence to suggest that this effect varies (i.e., the slope of the income effect is not necessarily the same for all countries). This assumption applies across countries along the aggregate consumption function, but also over time (i.e., not all countries are perceived to have the same income growth prospects over time and this effect can vary from country to country as well). Another way of looking at this is to say that latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems is more likely to be similar across countries that have similar characteristics in terms of economic development (i.e., African countries will have similar latent demand structures controlling for the income variation across the pool of African countries). This approach is useful across countries for which some notion of non-linearity exists in the aggregate cross-country consumption function. For some categories, however, the reader must realize that the numbers will reflect a country’s contribution to global latent demand and may never be realized in the form of local sales. For certain country-category combinations this will result in what at first glance will be odd results. For example, the latent demand for the category "space vehicles" will exist for Togo even though they have no space program. The assumption is that if the economies in these countries did not exist, the world aggregate for these categories would be lower. The share attributed to these countries is based on a proportion of their income (however small) being used to consume the category in question (i.e., perhaps via resellers).

1.3.5 Step 5. Fixed-Parameter Linear Estimation

Nonlinearities are assumed in cases where filtered data exist along the aggregate consumption function. Because the world consists of more than 200 countries, there will always be those countries, especially toward the bottom of the consumption function, where non-linear estimation is simply not possible. For these countries, equilibrium latent demand is assumed to be perfectly parametric and not a function of wealth (i.e., a country’s stock of income), but a function of current income (a country’s flow of income). In the long run, if a country has no current income, the latent demand for electronic medical record (EMR) systems is assumed to approach zero. The assumption is that wealth stocks fall rapidly to zero if flow income falls to zero (i.e., countries which earn low levels of income will not use their savings, in the long run, to demand electronic medical record (EMR) systems). In a graphical sense, for low-income countries, latent demand approaches zero in a parametric linear fashion with a zero-zero intercept. In this stage of the estimation procedure, low-income countries are assumed to have a latent demand proportional to their income, based on the country closest to it on the aggregate consumption function.

1.3.6 Step 6. Aggregation And Benchmarking

Based on the models described in Chapter 1, latent demand figures are estimated for all countries of the world, including for the smallest economies. These are then aggregated to get world totals and regional totals. To make the numbers more meaningful, regional and global demand averages are presented. Figures are rounded, so minor inconsistencies may exist across tables.

1.3.7 Step 7. Latent Demand Density: Allocating Across Cities

With the advent of a "borderless world", cities become a more important criteria in prioritizing markets, as opposed to regions, continents, or countries. This report also covers the world’s top 2,000 cities. The purpose is to understand the density of demand within a country and the extent to which a city might be used as a point of distribution within its region. From an economic perspective, however, a city does not represent a population within rigid geographical boundaries. To an economist or strategic planner, a city represents an area of dominant influence over markets in adjacent areas. This influence varies from one industry to another, but also from one period of time to another.

Similar to country-level data, the reader needs to realize that latent demand allocated to a city may or may not represent real sales. For many items, latent demand is clearly observable in sales, as in the case for food or housing items. Consider, again, the category "satellite launch vehicles." Clearly, there are no launch pads in most cities of the world. However, the core benefit of the vehicles (e.g. telecommunications, etc.) is "consumed" by residents or industries within the world's cities. Without certain cities, in other words, the world market for satellite launch vehicles would be lower for the world in general. One needs to allocate, therefore, a portion of the worldwide economic demand for launch vehicles to regions, countries, and cities. This report takes the broader definition and considers, therefore, a city as a part of the global market. I allocate latent demand across areas of dominant influence based on the relative economic importance of cities within its home country, within its region, and across the world total. Not all cities are estimated within each country as demand may be allocated to adjacent areas of influence. Since some cities have higher economic wealth than others within the same country, a city’s population is not generally used to allocate latent demand. Rather, the level of economic activity of the city is used vis-à-vis others.

Read more and order at The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Systems

Italy HIV/AIDS Diagnostics Market: HIV 1/2, Combo, Ag, NAT, Western Blot – Supplier Shares, Country Segment Volume and Sales Forecasts – Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Industries

The Italy HIV/AIDS Diagnostics Market: HIV 1/2, Combo, Ag, NAT, Western Blot – Supplier Shares, Country Segment Volume and Sales Forecasts Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Markets.

This DataPack presents Italian test volume and sale forecasts for HIV-1/2/Combo, HIV Ag, NAT, Western Blot and other confirmatory assays performed in the following market segments:

– Hospitals – Commercial/Private Labs – Blood Banks

The DataPack also provides sales and market share estimates for major suppliers of AIDS tests, including Abbott, bioMerieux, Bio-Rad, DiaSorin, Grifols, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics/J&J, Roche, and Siemens.

List of Tables

Table 1. Major Companies Developing or Marketing AIDS Tests
Table 2. Italy: HIV or HIV-1/2/Combo Test Volume and Sales Forecast by Market Segment
Table 3. Italy: HIV Ag Test Volume and Sales Forecast by Market Segment
Table 4. Italy: Western Blot Tests Volume and Sales Forecast by Market Segment
Table 5. Italy: HIV NAT Blood Screening Test Volume and Diagnostics Sales
Table 6. Italy: AIDS Diagnostics Market by Major Supplier
Table 7. Italy: HIV Blood Screening NAT Sales and Market Shares of Major Suppliers

Read more and order at Italy HIV/AIDS Diagnostics Market: HIV 1/2, Combo, Ag, NAT, Western Blot – Supplier Shares, Country Segment Volume and Sales Forecasts